double vs. an
Statically-typed (or strongly-typed) languages like C++ do not have active memory management. It is up to the programmer to know and declare the exact type of variable (memory space) required. This is because a number without decimals (
integer) takes less memory than a number with decimals (
Any sort of mathematics can be done in most programming languages. It is up to the programmer to learn the built-in mathematics as well as to create any new required computations. Here are the basic mathematical commands available.
x has a value of
let x = 19;)
Add. Returns 22
Subtract. Returns 15
Multiply. Returns 38
Divide. Returns 4.75
Modulo. Returns the remainder after a division. In this case, it returns 3 since 0.75 of 4 is 3.
If no remainder (ie. 10 % 5), modulo returns 0.
Computers and programming languages do their best to follow proper order of operations for mathematics. That being said, the interpreter or compiler can only interpret your code as best as possible. For this reason, it's important to utilize brackets (or parentheses)
( ) properly!
1 + 8 / 2 is quite different from
(1 + 8) / 2.
Assigning a numeric value to a variable is straight-forward. Any math that is done must also be stored, either in a new variable or back into the current one. The list below is an incomplete list of the ways you can assign a value to memory.
Assign the value 3 to variable
Increment the value of
Decrement the value of
Add, subtract, multiply, or divide some value, in this case 2, to
These also add, etc, any value, to
There is a standard in programming that the variable or item being used to contain data is on the left of an operator and the mathematics or item(s) being assigned to that variable is on the right.
x = 5 will assign 5 to the variable x while
5 = x will throw an exception because it is not possible to store x into the value 5. This becomes important when comparing two items (see below). You can not use a single
= to compare, it assigns.
In order to make decisions we must be able to compare values. Comparisons typically return a
false. Below is an incomplete list of the ways you can compare two or more values.
Equal in value
Equal in value and type
Not equal in value or type
Since they are not equal in type
Less than or greater than
Less than or equal to greater than or equal to
Logical operator and
Logical operator or
Logical operator not
It is easy to confuse the terminology or logic with the operators
>=. You should be reading it from left-to-right. Here are some examples:
4 < 10is read "four is less than 10"
100 > 6is read "one hundred is greater than six"
someVariable >= 0is read "some variable is greater than or equal to 0
x <= yis read "x is less than or equal to y"
When a variable is created in memory, it has no value. It has a name, but the variable itself has not been defined.
let x = 3; // Has the value 3let y; // Has no value, specifically it has no definitionconsole.log(x + "\n" + y)/* Output:3undefined*/
NaN which represents "Not a Number".
You can check to see if something is a number:
let myNumber = 3;let myString = "Hello";isNaN(myNumber); // falseisNaN(myString); // true/* Remember, to print those results, use console.log()and to store them, you need a variable:let result = isNaN(myString); */